Transfer of PCBs from microplastics under simulated gut fluid conditions is biphasic and reversible

The role of plastic as a vector for bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals is central to the risk assessment of microplastic for human health and the environment. However, transfer kinetics of sorbed contaminants from ingested microplastics are poorly understood. We develop and parameterise a chemical exchange model on microplastics in a gut fluid mimic of aquatic biota, and also included food to provide a better representation of contaminant dynamics when plastic and food are ingested, as would occur in nature. The transfer kinetics of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in gut fluid mimic systems under three environmentally relevant exposure scenarios of plastic ingestion by organisms, for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and were evaluated with the model. Chemical transfer was demonstrated to be biphasic and fully reversible, with fast exchange within hours followed by a slow transfer lasting for weeks to months. In clean gut systems, the bioavailability of plastic-associated PCBs for lugworms and cod ranged from 14-42% and 45-83% respectively. However, in contaminated gut systems, clean microplastic was capable of rapidly extracting (‘cleaning’) PCBs from food inside the gut, thus demonstrating that the effect of microplastic is context dependent. Therefore, chemical contamination and cleaning are likely to occur simultaneously due to the ingestion of microplastic.

Nur Hazimah Mohamed Nor and Albert A. Koelmans, Environ. Sci. Technol., Just Accepted Manuscript, January 14, 2019

The article

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Pollutions du milieu littoral par les microplastiques : Méthodes d’évaluation

Résumé : Les plastiques sont des matériaux techniques nécessaires au fonctionnement des sociétés industrialisées. Cependant, au début des années 2000, des particules de plastique de l’ordre de la dizaine de microns sont observées dans des échantillons d’eau de mer. Ce sont des « microplastiques ». Leur présence dans la plupart des milieux a progressivement été mise en lumière au point d’en faire un marqueur de l’anthropocène. Par ailleurs, ces particules interagissent avec leur environnement et peuvent être vectrices d’additifs toxiques ou de micropolluants. Face aux risques que représentent ces particules, il est important de pouvoir évaluer leur dangerosité pour l’homme et les écosystèmes. Dans ce contexte, les objectifs de ce travail de thèse sont (1) de déterminer les conditions d’extraction des microplastiques présents dans le sable les plus efficaces et les moins coûteuses et (2) de traduire en terme de toxicité les interactions entre micropolluants et plastiques vieillis dans le milieu marin. Pour cela, un prototype de système d’élutriation a été construit et un protocole adapté a été mis en place pour permettre d’extraire les microplastiques du sable. Afin de faciliter la détermination des vitesses de flux optimales pour permettre une élutriation efficace, un modèle numérique simple reposant sur des équations d’hydrodynamique a été développé. La confrontation des résultats théoriques et expérimentaux a ensuite permis de le valider. Ces résultats ont également permis de mettre en évidence que des ajustements du dimensionnement du système d’élutriation étaient nécessaires. En se basant sur différentes contraintes, par exemple sur le temps nécessaire pour réaliser l’élutriation ou encore sur la taille de la colonne, de nouvelles données de dimensionnement ont été acquises. Le vieillissement de 3 types de plastique (PVC, PET et PBAT) dans le port de Kernevel (Larmor- Plage) a été étudié en suivant l’évolution de l’état de surface et la toxicité de ces matériaux durant 502 jours d’immersion. Cette étude a montré des comportements très différents de ces trois plastiques au cours du temps. Ainsi, le PBAT vieillit plus vite que le PVC alors que le PET évolue peu. Le vieillissement du PVC s’accompagne d’une perte de ses composés à activité œstrogénique et d’une adsorption de métaux lourds. En milieu marin, en se dégradant la surface du PBAT forme des cavités dans lesquelles se piègent des argiles ; de plus en vieillissant ce matériau peut présenter une forte activité œstrogénique ponctuelle.

Mikaël Kedzierski, Génie des procédés. Université de Bretagne Sud, 2017. Français. Thèse soutenue le 17 octobre 2017.

Continuous Exposure to Microplastics Does Not Cause Physiological Effects in the Cultivated Mussel Perna perna

The environmental impact of microplastics is a challenging theme, especially under realistic experimental conditions. We investigated physiological responses to 0.1–1.0 μm PVC particles intake by the mussel Perna perna after a relative long-term exposure (90 days) at a less extreme concentration compared with previous studies (0.125 g/L). Microplastic intake was inferred by the presence of PVC in the feces of mussels, and physiological damages were assessed through ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency, growth rate, cellular and molecular biomarkers (lysosomal integrity, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage), and condition index. All physiological responses showed nonsignificant effects of the microplastics on the exposed mussels. We suggest that, despite the experimental concentration of microplastics, mussels were able to acclimate to the exposure through their abilities for long-term recovery and tolerance to stresses. These data have positive implications for environmental health and in terms of human food resource because mussel farming is a worldwide practice that heavily relies on plastic materials, increasing the chances of microplastic exposure and mussels contamination.

Marina F. M. Santana,Fabiana T. Moreira, Camilo D. S. Pereira, Denis M. S. Abessa, Alexander Turra, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, P; 1-11, 19/01/2018

The article

Threat of plastic ageing in marine environment. Adsorption/desorption of micropollutants

Ageing of various plastics in marine environment was monitored after immersion of two synthetic (polyvinylchloride, PVC, and polyethylene terephthalate, PET) and one biodegradable (poly(butylene adipate co-terephtalate), PBAT) plastics for 502 days in the bay of Lorient (Brittany, France). Data analysis indicates that aged PVC rapidly releases estrogenic compounds in seawater with a later adsorption of heavy metals; PET undergoes a low weakening of the surface whereas no estrogenic activity is detected; PBAT ages faster in marine environment than PVC. Aged PBAT exhibits heterogeneous surface with some cavities likely containing clay minerals from the chlorite group. Besides, this degraded material occasionally shows a high estrogenic activity. Overall, this study reports, for the first time, that some aged plastics, without being cytotoxic, can release estrogenic compounds in marine environment.

Mikaël Kedzierski, Mélanie D’Almeida, Anthony Magueresse and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 127, February 2018, Pages 684-694

The article

Effects of dietary polyvinylchloride microparticles on general health, immune status and expression of several genes related to stress in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

It is a long-recognized fact that marine plastic debris contaminates the oceans and seas of the entire world. Even though their effects on the aquatic biota are not well documented or understood. The effects of dietary polyvinylchloride microparticles (PVC-MPs) on the general health, immune status and some stress markers were studied using gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) as a model of marine fish. Thirty specimens were randomly placed in three running sea water aquaria and fish in each aquarium received an experimental diet containing 0 (control), 100 or 500 mg kg−1 of PVC-MPs for 30 days. Metabolic parameters in serum indicated that the dietary intake of PVC-MPs negatively affected several vital organs. Humoral immune parameters were determined in serum and skin mucus. Cellular immune parameters were determined in head-kidney leucocytes. Concomitantly, the expression of different genes related to stress was studied in head-kidney and liver. Regarding head-kidney gene expression, prdx5 was significantly decreased by PVC-MPs intake for 15 and 30 days, respect to the values found in control fish. On the other hand, the expression of prdx1 and prdx3 were significantly increased by the PVC-MPs intake during 15 and 30 days, compared with the values found in control fish. Furthermore, the expression of hsp90 and ucp1 genes decreased and increased, respectively, in the liver of fish fed 500 mg kg−1 of PVC-MPs for 30 days. Although ingestion of PVC-MPs provoked few significant effects (mostly increases) in the main immune activities of gilthead seabream compared with the values found in control fish, PVC-MPs are recognized by the fish as stressors. Continued exposure of fish to high concentrations of PVC-MPs could have a negative impact on fish physiology due to the chronic stress produced.

Cristóbal Espinosa, Alberto Cuesta, María Ángeles Esteban, Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Vol. 68, Sept. 2017

The article

Characterization and Analysis of Microplastics

This book aims to fulfill the gap on the existence of published analytical methodologies for the identification and quantification of microplastics. This overview includes the following main topics: introduction to the fate and behavior of microplastics in the environment, assessment of sampling techniques and sample handling, morphological, physical, and chemical characterization of microplastics, and the role of laboratory experiments in the validation of field data.

The characterization and analysis of microplastics is a hot topic considering the current need for reliable data on concentrations of microplastics in environmental compartments. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the analytical techniques and future perspectives of analytical methodologies in the field.

Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Volume 75, Pages 1-286 (2017), edited by Teresa A.P. Rocha-Santos and Armando C. Duarte, ISBN: 978-0-444-63898-4

The book

Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC)

Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed.

Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540 mg/m3 of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81 mg/m3) and 17% (257 mg/m3) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples.

Marius Majewsky, Hajo Bitter, Elisabeth Eiche, Harald Horn, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 568, 15 October 2016, Pages 507–511

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