Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure

Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10−7 to 1.2 × 10−5 (year−1) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10−7 to 7.2 × 10−6 (year−1) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10–3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and the high degree of human exposure and suggest the need for continuous investigations on environmental pollution and toxic impacts of e-waste-related hazardous chemicals.

Hoang Quoc Anh, Vu Duc Nam, Tran Manh Tri, Nguyen Manh Ha, Nguyen Thuy Ngoc, Pham Thi Ngoc Mai, Duong Hong Anh, Nguyen Hung Minh, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Tu Binh Minh, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, August 2017, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 935–954

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Persistent organic pollutants in selected fishes of the Gulf of Finland

Fish samples of Baltic herring, sprat, flounder, perch, salmon, and river lamprey were collected from the Gulf of Finland in 2013 and 2014 with the aim to get an overview of the occurrence of pollutants in fish caught in Estonian waters. The content of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organic tin (OT) and perfluorocompounds (PFAS) are examined and discussed in the study. The results revealed that potentially higher content of organo-tin compounds, perfluorocompounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic herring, salmon and river lamprey may cause concern regarding human exposure.

It is important to link pollutant content to lipid content of fish taking into account their seasonal variation in different age classes.

Leili Järv, Hannu Kiviranta, Jani Koponen and al., Journal of Marine Systems, Volume 171, July 2017, Pages 129–133

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Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms: A review

Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. The present work reviewed the main class of plastic additives identified in the literature, their occurrence in the marine environment, as well as their effects on and transfers to marine organisms. This work identified polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), phthalates, nonylphenols (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and antioxidants as the most common plastic additives found in marine environments. Moreover, transfer of these plastic additives to marine organisms has been demonstrated both in laboratory and field studies. Upcoming research focusing on the toxicity of microplastics should include these plastic additives as potential hazards for marine organisms, and a greater focus on the transport and fate of plastic additives is now required considering that these chemicals may easily leach out from plastics.

Ludovic Hermabessiere, Alexandre Dehaut, Ika Paul-Pont, Camille Lacroix, Ronan Jezequel, Philippe Soudant, Guillaume Duflos, Chemosphere, Volume 182, September 2017, Pages 781–793

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Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in commercial seafood species available in European markets

PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), HBCD (α, β, γ), emerging brominated flame retardants (PBEB, HBB and DBDPE), dechloranes (Dec 602, 603, 604, syn- and anti-DP), TBBPA, 2,4,6-TBP and MeO-PBDEs (8 congeners) were analysed in commercial seafood samples from European countries. Levels were similar to literature and above the environmental quality standards (EQS) limit of the Directive 2013/39/EU for PBDEs. Contaminants were found in 90.5% of the seafood samples at n. d.-356 ng/g lw (n. d.-41.1 ng/g ww). DBDPE was not detected and 2,4,6-TBP was detected only in mussels, but at levels comparable to those of PBDEs. Mussel and seabream were the most contaminated species and the Mediterranean Sea (FAO Fishing Area 37) was the most contaminated location. The risk assessment revealed that there was no health risk related to the exposure to brominated flame retardants via seafood consumption. However, a refined risk assessment for BDE-99 is of interest in the future. Moreover, the cooking process concentrated PBDEs and HBB.

Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Laura Trabalón, Silke Jacobs and al., Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 104, June 2017, Pages 35–47

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NORMAN interlaboratory study (ILS) on passive sampling of emerging pollutants

A chemical monitoring on site (CM Onsite) organised by NORMAN Association and JRC in support of the Water Framework Directive

Passive samplers can play a valuable role in monitoring water quality within a legislative framework such as the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD). The time-integrated data from these devices can be used to complement chemical monitoring of priority and emerging contaminants which are difficult to analyse by spot or bottle sampling methods, and to improve risk assessment of chemical pollution. In order to increase the acceptance of passive sampling technology amongst end users and to gain further information about the robustness of the calibration and analytical steps, several inter-laboratory field studies have recently been performed in Europe. Such trials are essential to further validate this sampling method and to increase the confidence of the technological approach for end users. An inter-laboratory study on the use of passive samplers for the monitoring of emerging pollutants was organised in 2011 by the NORMAN association (Network of reference laboratories for monitoring emerging environmental pollutants; http://www.norman-network.net) together with the European DG Joint Research Centre to support the Common Implementation Strategy of the WFD. Thirty academic, commercial and regulatory laboratories participated in the passive sampler comparison exercise and each was allowed to select their own sampler design. All the different devices were exposed at a single sampling site to treated waste water from a large municipal treatment plant. In addition, the organisers deployed in parallel for each target analyte class multiple samplers of a single type which were subsequently distributed to the participants for analysis. This allowed an evaluation of the contribution of the different analytical laboratory procedures to the data variability. The results obtained allow an evaluation of the potential of different passive sampling methods for monitoring selected emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, polar pesticides, steroid hormones, fluorinated surfactants, triclosan, bisphenol A and brominated flame retardants). In most cases, between laboratory variation of results from passive samplers was roughly a factor 5 larger than within laboratory variability. Similar results obtained for different passive samplers analysed by individual laboratories and also low within laboratory variability of sampler analysis indicate that the passive sampling process is causing less variability than the analysis. This points at difficulties that laboratories experienced with analysis in complex environmental matrices. Where a direct comparison was possible (not in case of brominated flame retardants) analysis of composite water samples provided results that were within the concentration range obtained by passive samplers. However, in the future a significant improvement of the overall precision of passive sampling is needed. The results will be used to inform EU Member States about the potential application of passive sampling methods for monitoring organic chemicals within the framework of the WFD. (2016)

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Are whale sharks exposed to persistent organic pollutants and plastic pollution in the Gulf of California (Mexico)? First ecotoxicological investigation using skin biopsies

The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is an endangered species that may be exposed to micro- and macro-plastic ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity, particularly on the sea surface. In this pilot project we perform the first ecotoxicological investigation on whale sharks sampled in the Gulf of California exploring the potential interaction of this species with plastic debris (macro-, micro-plastics and related sorbed contaminants). Due to the difficulty in obtaining stranded specimens of this endangered species, an indirect approach, by skin biopsies was used for the evaluation of the whale shark ecotoxicological status. The levels of organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polybrominatediphenylethers (PBDEs) plastic additives, and related biomarkers responses (CYP1A) were investigated for the first time in the whale shark. Twelve whale shark skin biopsy samples were collected in January 2014 in La Paz Bay (BCS, Mexico) and a preliminary investigation on microplastic concentration and polymer composition was also carried out in seawater samples from the same area. The average abundance pattern for the target contaminants was PCBs > DDTs > PBDEs > HCB. Mean concentration values of 8.42 ng/g w.w. were found for PCBs, 1.31 ng/g w.w. for DDTs, 0.29 ng/g w.w. for PBDEs and 0.19 ng/g w.w for HCB. CYP1A–like protein was detected, for the first time, in whale shark skin samples. First data on the average density of microplastics in the superficial zooplankton/microplastic samples showed values ranging from 0.00 items/m3 to 0.14 items/m3. A Focused PCA analysis was performed to evaluate a possible correlation among the size of the whale sharks, contaminants and CYP1A reponses. Further ecotoxicological investigation on whale shark skin biopsies will be carried out for a worldwide ecotoxicological risk assessment of this endangerd species.

Maria Cristina Fossi, Matteo Baini, Cristina Panti and al., Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, Available online 6 March 2017, In Press

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Tracing the Biotransformation of PCBs and PBDEs in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Using Compound-Specific and Enantiomer-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

Compound-specific and enantiomer-specific carbon isotope composition was investigated in terms of biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as atropisomers of chiral PCB congeners in fish by exposing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to certain PCB and PBDE congeners. The calculated carbon isotope enrichment factors (εC) for PCB 8, 18, and 45 were −1.99, −1.84, and −1.70‰, respectively, providing evidence of the metabolism of these congeners in fish. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDE congeners clearly reflect the debromination of PBDEs in carp. Significant isotopic fractionation was also observed during the debromination process of BDE 153 (εC = −0.86‰). Stereoselective elimination of chiral PCB congeners 45, 91, and 95 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The similar εC values for E1-PCB 45 (−1.63‰) and E2-PCB 45 (−1.74‰) indicated that both atropisomers were metabolized by the same reaction mechanisms and stereoselection did not occur at carbon bond cleavage. However, the εC values of (+)-PCB 91 (−1.5‰) and (−)-PCB 95 (−0.77‰) were significantly different from those of (−)-PCB 91 and (+)-PCB 95, respectively. In the latter, no significant isotopic fractionations were observed, indicating that the stereoselective elimination of PCB 91 and 95 could be caused by a different reaction mechanism in the two atropisomers.

Bin Tang, Xiao-Jun Luo, Yan-Hong Zeng, and Bi-Xian Mai, Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, February 16, 2017

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