Presence of microplastics in the stomachs of Carcinus aestuarii Nardo, 1857 in Çardak Lagoon, Çanakkale Strait, Turkey

This paper reports the presence of microplastic in the stomachs of the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii Nardo, 1857. The crabs were collected from six sites chosen in the Çardak Lagoon (Çanakkale Strait). Plastic fibers were observed in the stomach contents of three male individuals. Since C. aestuarii is an important food for fish and birds in estuarine and lagoon areas, microplastics can go up to the trophic levels by entering the food chain.

, Cah. Biol. Mar. (2018) 59 : 493 – 496

The article

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Fishing lines and fish hooks as neglected marine litter: first data on chemical composition, densities, and biological entrapment from a Mediterranean beach

We reported first data on the densities and chemical composition of fishing lines and fish hooks deposited on a Mediterranean beach. On a sampling area of 1.5 ha, we removed a total of 185,028 cm of fishing lines (density 12.34 cm/m2) and 33 hooks (density 22 units/ha). Totally, 637.62 g (42.5 mg/m2) of fishing lines were collected. We sampled 120 items entangled belongings to 7 animal taxa (density 6.49 items/100 m of fishing lines). We also observed a not quantifiable number of egagropiles (Posidonia oceanica spheroids), Rhodophyceae (Halymenia sp.) and segments of reeds of Phragmites communis, trapped in the fishing lines. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in order to identify the chemical composition of the fishing lines: 92% was made of nylon while 8.0% was determined as fluorocarbon based polymers (polyvinylidene fluoride). Because of their subtlety and reduced size, sandy beach cleaning operations should include at least two consecutive removal samplings: indeed, a part of this litter (12.14%) is not removed in the first sampling. The unexpected high density of fishing lines suggests specific management actions aimed to periodically remove this neglected anthropogenic litter.

Corrado Battisti, Silvio Kroha, Elina Kozhuharova, Silvia De Michelis, Giuliano Fanelli, Gianluca Poeta, Loris Pietrelli, Fulvio Cerfolli, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, , Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 1000–1007

The article

Composition and abundance of benthic marine litter in a coastal area of the central Mediterranean Sea

Abundance and qualitative composition of benthic marine litter were investigated in a coastal area of the central Mediterranean Sea. Almost 30 km of video footage, collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle between 5 and 30 m depth, were analyzed. Litter density ranged from 0 to 0.64 items/m2 with a mean of 0.11 (±0.16) items/m2. General wastes, made up almost entirely of plastic objects, were the dominant sources of debris representing 68% of the overall litter. The remaining 32% consisted of lost or abandoned fishing gears. Synthetic polymers, considering both fishing gears and general waste, represented 73% of total debris items. Our results are comparable with litter amounts reported in other Mediterranean sites at similar depths. Overall, the results are discussed in terms of monitoring strategy, to support the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC) for descriptor 10 and the Mediterranean UN Environment (UNEP/MAP) regional Plan on Marine Litter.

P. Consoli, M. Falautano, M. Sinopoli and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 136, November 2018, Pages 243-247

The article

Distribution and composition of benthic marine litter on the shelf of Antalya in the eastern Mediterranean

In recent years, the pollution of the seas by the litter has identified as a serious environmental problem. Studies indicate that the majority of the marine litter consists of plastic, which is a result of human actions that also affected by river input, fishing activity and current systems. Thus, this study mainly focused on the distribution and composition of benthic marine litter. The sampling was carried out in Antalya Bay with a demersal trawl. A total of 68 hauls were performed and 370 pieces of 136.3 kg litter were collected. The density values vary between 13.3 and 651.1 n/km−2 and weight values vary between 0.02 and 559 kg/km−2 in overall litter. Distribution, density – weight indices by testing the differences with the depth, season and transect were analysed. Depth had a significant impact on both density and weight indices. Marine litter monitoring program is necessary for offering more solution proposals.

M. Tunca Olguner, C. Olguner, E. Mutlu and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 136, November 2018, Pages 171-176

First evidence of ingested plastics by a high commercial shrimp species (Plesionika narval) in the eastern Mediterranean

This study provides the first evidence of nylon filament occurrence in the stomach of an economically important target shrimp species in the Mediterranean Sea, Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787). Samples were collected monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 from shallow (10–30 m) and deeper waters (150–170 m). The occurrence of plastics in the stomachs of the Narwal shrimp was 5.93% and identified as Nylon by FT-IR analysis. Higher percentages of ingested plastics were found in females from shallower depths and in males from deeper waters. The maximum number of plastics was recorded in January and March, possibly related to the higher feeding intensity of females prior to their reproduction period. A total of 10.3% of females and 4.8% of males with ingested plastics had almost empty stomachs. The presence of plastics in the stomach of P. narval is an evidence of passive ingestion which in this study related to fishing activities.

L. Bordbar, K. Kapiris, S. Kalogirou and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 136, November 2018, Pages 472-476

The article

Analysis, occurence, release and degradation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Mediterranean coastal sea

Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) are a group of emerging organic contaminants that have become a serious issue because of their ubiquitous presence on the marine environment worldwide and for the endocrine disrupting effects in animals and humans. However, little is known about their distribution in the Ocean, mainly because of analytical difficulties and the high possibility of ambient sample contamination. Plastic debris in marine environment includes resin pellets, macro- and microplastic fragments, and contains additives such as PAEs that might be released in the aquatic environment in unknown proportion. In our work, we improved an analytical method for the determination of 8 PAEs, at trace levels in marine and fresh waters. In the first part of the thesis, the method was validated for different seawater salinities and wastewater treatment plant outlet. By passing 1 L of sample through glass cartridges packed with 200 mg of Oasis HLB and eluted with 6 mL of ethyl acetate, the recoveries fordimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropylphthalate (DPP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and d-n-octyl-phthalate (DnOP), were 101, 98, 115, 110, 99, 98, 103 and 95 %, respectively, with acceptable blank values (below 0.4-4.0 % of the masses measured in different seawater samples). In a second part, PAE distribution in the Marseille Bay has been evaluated though a one-year monitoring from December 2013 to November 2014. The results showed the occurrence of six PAEs, DMP, DEP, DiBP, DnBP, BzBP and DEHP, with total concentrations ranging from 130 to 1330 ng L-1 (av. 522 ng L-1). DEHP was the most abundant PAE in all of the surface samples and the summer bottom samples, followed by DiBP and DnBP. High concentrations were detected in the bottom water, suggesting that resuspension of PAE-rich sediment, in relation with the accumulation of plastic debris above the seabed plays a significant role in the PAE dynamics in coastal
water. In the last part of this thesis, two common plastic samples as trash plastic bags and insulation layer of electric cables were incubated in natural seawater in laboratory conditions and studied for the release of PAE. Release ws observed for the different PAEs with kinetics varying according to the plastic type. DMP and DEP were preferentially released from the insulation layer of electric cables reaching level of release of 9.5 ± 1.4 and 68.9 ± 10.3 ng g-1, respectively, whereas DiBP and DnBP were released from plastic bags, reaching the highest rate after only one week, at values of 333.4 ± 50.3 and 480.5 ± 72.1 ng g-1, respectively.

Andrea PALUSELLI, Université d’Aix-Marseille, École doctorale Science de l‟environnement, 15-02-2018.

The thesis

Sea Water Contamination in the Vicinity of the Italian Minor Islands Caused by Microplastic Pollution

The abundance and distribution of microplastics (MP) were evaluated in six “clean” sites (Italian minor islands) and in two “polluted” areas (near the mouth of two major Italian rivers). Samples of MP, plankton and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were collected using a manta trawl (MA) and a plankton net (WP2), both lined with a 333 µm mesh net. MP have been confirmed to be ubiquitous since they were found at each site, showing an average density of 0.3 ± 0.04 items/m3 (values ranged from 0.641 to 0.119 ). When comparing the clean sites with the polluted ones, a significantly higher value of MP was found near the river mouths. The most common types of MP were synthetic filaments (50.24%), followed by fragments (30.39%), thin plastic films (16.98%) and spheres (2.39%). Infrared spectroscopy analysis highlighted that the most abundant polymers were polyethylene (PE-26%), polypropylene (PP-11%), polyethylene-terephthalate/polyester (PET/PEST-8%) and ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA-5%). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides were detected in all the samples with a high variability among sites and depths. This study adds to the existing information on the distribution of contaminants across the Mediterranean Sea, and is useful to policy makers who wish to implement effective measures to reduce MP pollution.

Giuseppe Andrea de Lucia, Alvise Vianello, Andrea Camedda and al., Water, 2018, 10(8), 1108

The article