Ingestion of plastic fragments by the Guri sea catfish Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829) in a subtropical coastal estuarine system

One of the most recognized anthropogenic impacts in marine environments is solid waste pollution, especially plastic, which can be ingested by fish, thus interfering with their health. In this context, the aim of this study is to describe the ingestion of plastic fragments and to identify the possible effect of this contamination in the condition factor of Genidens genidens in the Laguna Estuarine System. The stomach contents of 92 G. genidens (26 juveniles and 66 adults) were analyzed. The Index of Relative Importance was performed to identify the contribution of each prey item. Condition factor (CF) was used to analyze the effect of plastic ingestion on the fish’s body condition (by comparing individuals in the same ontogenetic phase). For the juveniles, eight items were observed, the most important of which were Penaeidae, followed by Portunidae and plastic. For the adults, 12 items were observed, the most important of which were Penaeidae, Portunidae, Polychaeta, and plastic. The analysis of CF demonstrated higher values for individuals without plastic in the stomach, which indicated a better health condition. The CF of a fish may be affected by variations in the physiological condition, environmental stresses, and nutritional and biological variations, and could be used to compare the body condition or health of a fish species. The ingestion of plastic could significantly influence the worst body condition of the individuals that were analyzed in the present study. The plastic pollution in marine coastal waters is associated with the appropriate waste management levels.

David V. Dantas, Cristian I. R. Ribeiro, Catarina de C. A. Frischknecht, Rodrigo Machado, Eduardo G. G. Farias, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp 1–8, 2019

The article

Advertisements

Marine litter in stomach content of small pelagic fishes from the Adriatic Sea: sardines ( Sardina pilchardus) and anchovies ( Engraulis encrasicolus)

Marine litter impacts oceans and affects marine organisms, representing a potential threat for natural stocks of pelagic fish species located at the first levels of the marine food webs. In 2013–2014, on a seasonal basis, marine litter and microplastics in stomach contents from Sardinia pilchardus and Engraulis encrasicolus were evaluated. Selected species are plankitivores of great ecological and commercial importance in the Adriatic Sea. Collected data were correlated to possible factors able to affect ingested levels as well as species, season of sampling, biometry and sex of animals. Almost all tested samples (80 organisms for each species) contained marine litter (over 90% of samples from both species) and also microplastics; while any meso- or macroplastics were recorded. On average, recorded items were as follows: 4.63 (S. plichardus) and 1.25 (E. encrasicolus) per individual. Sardines evidenced a higher number of microplastics characterised by a smaller size than those recorded in anchovies. For sardines, sex, Gastro Somatic Index and sampling season showed negligible effects on the number of ingested litter; conversely, anchovies showed differences related with both sex of animals and dominant colour of ingested materials with prevalence for black and blue colours.

Monia Renzi, Antonietta Specchiulli, Andrea Blašković, Cristina Manzo, Giorgio Mancinelli, Lucrezia Cilenti, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, , Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 2771–2781

The article

Double trouble in the South Pacific subtropical gyre: Increased plastic ingestion by fish in the oceanic accumulation zone

Fish are an important food source for South Pacific (SP) island countries, yet there is little information on contamination of commercial marine fish species by plastic. The aim of our study was to perform a broad-scale assessment of plastic ingestion by fish common in the diet of SP inhabitants. We examined 932 specimens from 34 commercial fish species across four SP locations, and some of the prey they ingested, for the presence of marine plastics. Plastic was found in 33 species, with an average ingestion rate (IR) of 24.3 ± 1.4% and plastic load of 2.4 ± 0.2 particles per fish. Rapa Nui fish exhibited the greatest IR (50.0%), significantly greater than in other three locations. Rapa Nui is located within the SP subtropical gyre, where the concentration of marine plastics is high and food is limited. Plastic was also found in prey, which confirms the trophic transfer of microplastics.

A. Markic, C. Niemand, J. H. Bridson and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 136, November 2018, Pages 547-564

The article

Effects of polymethylmethacrylate nanoplastics on Dicentrarchus labrax

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ~45 nm nanoplastics (NPs) on the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax after a short-term exposure. Animals were exposed to a concentration range of NPs for 96 h and liver, plasma and skin mucus were sampled. Assessed endpoints included biochemical biomarkers and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, immune system and general cell stress. Abundance of mRNA transcripts related to lipid metabolism, pparα and pparγ, were significantly increased after exposure to NPs. Biochemical endpoints revealed decreased esterase activity levels in plasma, suggesting that the immune system of fish might be compromised by exposure to NPs. Moreover, significantly lower levels of alkaline phosphatase were found in the skin mucus of animals exposed to NPs. The present results suggest that NPs may represent a hazard to this marine fish, potentially interfering with the metabolism of lipids and the correct function of the immune response.

I. Brandts, M. Teles, A. Tvarijonaviciute and al., Genomics, Volume 110, Issue 6, November 2018, Pages 435-441

The article

Size Matters: Ingestion of Relatively Large Microplastics Contaminated with Environmental Pollutants Posed Little Risk for Fish Health and Fillet Quality

In this study, we investigated biological effects associated with ingestion of polystyrene (PS) microplastic (MPs) in fish. We examined whether ingestion of contaminated PS MPs (100–400 μm) results in chemical stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and we explored whether this exposure can affect the oxidative stability of the fillet during ice storage. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed for 4 weeks with four different experimental diets: control (1) and feeds containing virgin PS MPs (2) or PS MPs exposed to sewage (3) or harbor (4) effluent. A suite of ecotoxicological biomarkers for oxidative stress and xenobiotic-related pathways was investigated in the hepatic tissue, and included gene expression analyses and enzymatic measurements. The potential impact of MPs exposure on fillet quality was investigated in a storage trial where lipid hydroperoxides, loss of redness and development of rancid odor were assessed as indications of lipid peroxidation. Although, chemical analysis of PS MPs revealed that particles sorb environmental contaminants (e.g., PAHs, nonylphenol and alcohol ethoxylates and others), the ingestion of relatively high doses of these PS MPs did not induce adverse hepatic stress in fish liver. Apart from small effect on redness loss in fillets of fish exposed to PS MPs, the ingestion of these particles did not affect lipid peroxidation or rancid odor development, thus did not affect fillet’s quality.

Giedrė Ašmonaitė, Karin Larsson, Ingrid Undeland and al., Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, November 19, 2018

The article

Rainbow Trout Maintain Intestinal Transport and Barrier Functions Following Exposure to Polystyrene Microplastics

Ingestion has been proposed as a prominent exposure route for plastic debris in aquatic organisms, including fish. While the consequences of ingestion of large plastic litter are mostly understood, the impacts resulting from ingestion of microplastics (MPs) are largely unknown. We designed a study that aimed to assess impacts of MPs on fish intestinal physiology and examined integrity of extrinsic, physical and immunological barriers. Rainbow trout were exposed to polystyrene (PS) MPs (100–400 μm) via feed for a period of 4 weeks. Fish were fed four types of diets: control, diets containing virgin PS particles, or particles exposed to two different environmental matrices (sewage or harbor effluent). Extrinsic barrier disturbance in intestinal tissue was evaluated via histology. The paracellular permeability toward ions and molecules was examined using Ussing chambers and mRNA expression analysis of tight junction proteins. Active transport was monitored as transepithelial potential difference, short-circuits current and uptake rate of amino acid 3H-lysine. Immune status parameters were measured through mRNA expression level of cytokines, lysozyme activity, and hematological analysis of immune cells. We could not show that PS MPs induced inflammatory responses or acted as physical or chemical hazards upon ingestion. No measurable effects were exerted on fish intestinal permeability, active transport or electrophysiology.

Giedrė Ašmonaitė, Henrik Sundh, Noomi Asker, and Bethanie Carney Almroth, Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, November 19, 2018

Low prevalence of microplastic contamination in planktivorous fish species from the southeast Pacific Ocean

The gut contents of 292 planktivorous fish, from four families (Atherinopsidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Scombridae) and seven species, captured along the coast of the southeast Pacific, were examined for microplastic contamination. Only a small fraction of all studied fish (2.1%; 6 individuals) contained microplastic particles in their digestive tract. Microplastics found were degraded hard fragments and threads, ranging from 1.1 to 4.9 (3.8 ± SD 2.4) mm in length, and of various colours, which suggests that the planktivorous fish species examined herein did not capture microplastics on the basis of their colour. The low prevalence of microplastic contamination in planktivorous fishes found in this study suggests that the risk of accidental ingestion by these species might be limited in the coastal upwelled waters of the southeast Pacific, perhaps due to small human population and highly dynamic oceanographic processes.

N. Ory, C. Chagnon, F. Felix and al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 127, February 2018, Pages 211-216