Histopathological and molecular effects of microplastics in Eisenia andrei Bouché

The ocean has been assumed as the main sink of microplastics (MPs), however, soils may also receive MPs from different sources and through different pathways, which may affect the biota and their role in soil functions. To the best of our knowledge, only one study, until now, reported the effects of MPs on the survival and fitness of soil organisms (Lumbricus terrestris). In our study, epigeic earthworms, of the species E. andrei, were exposed to different concentrations of MPs (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg soildw) in an OECD artificial soil and tested for reproduction, survival and growth of adults, following a standard protocol. The size of the polyethylene MPs to which earthworms were exposed ranged between 250 and 1000 μm. No significant effects were recorded on survival, number of juveniles and, in the final weight of adult earthworms after 28d of exposure, to the different concentrations of MPs. Nevertheless, FTIR-ATR of earthworms and histopathological analysis of the gut provided evidences of damages and immune system responses to MPs.

A. Rodriguez-Seijo, J. Lourenço, T.A.P. Rocha-Santos, J. da Costa, A.C. Duarte, H. Vala, R. Pereira, Environmental Pollution, Volume 220, Part A, January 2017, Pages 495–503

The article

Extraction, enumeration and identification methods for monitoring microplastics in the environment

There is much research on the occurrence, pollution characteristics and impacts of microplastics in the marine environment but this omits factors which play important roles in the analysis of microplastics. This review summarizes the methods and techniques in the extraction from sediment, seawater and organisms, and assesses their advantages and limitations according to different experimental conditions, such as salt solution and reagents added to remove organic matter. Similarly, this overview includes the enumeration methods of microplastics by many kinds of microscopes (e.g. stereomicroscope, fluorescent microscope, scanning electron microscope). Advantages and challenges of using micro-FTIR, ART-FTIR, FPA-FTIR, Pry-GC/MS, and Raman spectroscopy in the identification methods are also discussed. This review suggests that monitoring microplastics needs standardized protocols for extraction, identification and quantification and that further research on the effects of microplastics to human health is needed.

Qiongxuan Qiu, Zhi Tan, Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Meimin Li, Zhiwei Zhan, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 176, Pages 102–109, 5 July 2016

The article

A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics using Pressurized Fluid Extraction

A method based on Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was developed for measuring microplastics in environmental samples. This method can address some limitations of the current microplastic methods and provide laboratories with a simple analytical method for quantifying common microplastics in a range of environmental samples. The method was initially developed by recovering 101% to 111% of spiked plastics on glass beads and was then applied to a composted municipal waste sample with spike recoveries ranging from 85% to 94%. The results from municipal waste samples and soil samples collected from an industrial area demonstrated that the method is a promising alternative for determining the concentration and identity of microplastics in environmental samples.

Stephen George Fuller and Anil Gautam, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2016, 50 (11), pp 5774–5780

The article

Assessing the impact of exposure to microplastics in fish

(…) Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that fish will actively take up microplastics from the water column, as well as ingesting them via their diet. Although ingestion of the micron-sized plastics does not appear to adversely impact the survival or health of adult fish, at least in the short term, there is evidence to support negative changes in the body condition of larval fish. Furthermore, there was evidence that MPs have the potential to partition an organic pollutant and act as a vector to transport this chemical into the food chain. These results highlight the need for longer-term studies that can more fully evaluate the environmental impacts of plastic ingestion for aquatic organisms.

Environment Agency UK, T. Katzenberger and K.Thorpe, March 2015

The report