Dechlorane Plus induces oxidative stress and decreases cyclooxygenase activity in the blue mussel

Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardant used mainly in electrical wire and cable coating, computer connectors, and plastic roofing materials. Concentrations of DP (syn and anti isomers) are increasingly being reported in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, there is exceedingly little information on the exposure-related toxicity of DP in aquatic organisms, especially in bivalves. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of DP exposure on histopathology, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, phagocytosis capacity and efficiency, and DNA strand breakage in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) following a 29 days exposure (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 μg DP/L). Blue mussels accumulated DP in muscle and digestive gland in a dose-dependent manner. LPO levels in gills were found to increase by 82% and 67% at the 0.01 and 1.0 μg DP/L doses, respectively, while COX activity in gills decreased by 44% at the 1 μg/L dose. No histopathological lesion was found in gonads following DP exposure. Moreover, no change in hemocyte DNA strand breakage, phagocytosis rate, and viability was observed following DP exposure. Present study showed that toxicity of DP may occur primarily via oxidative stress in the blue mussel and potentially other bivalves, and that gills represent the most responsive tissue to this exposure.

Pierre-Luc Gagné, Marlène Fortier, Marc Fraser and al., Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 188, July 2017, Pages 26-32

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Recovering microplastics from marine samples: A review of current practices

An important component of microplastic research is development of reproducible methods for microplastic recovery and characterization. Presented is a review of the literature comparing microplastic separation and identification methodologies from seawater, sediment and marine organisms. The efficiency of methods was examined, including processing time, recovery rates, and potential destruction of microplastics. Visual examination and acid digestion were the most common separation methods for seawater samples and organisms, while density flotation was the primary method for sediment. Few studies reported recovery rates, or investigated the physical or chemical impact on plastics. This knowledge gap may lead to misidentification of plastic or unreliable pollution estimates. Further investigation of the impact chemical treatments have on plastic is warranted. Factors, i.e. biomass loading, recovery rates, and chemical compatibility, must be considered to allow for appropriate methodology. Standardizing this will contribute to efficient sample processing, and allow for direct comparison of microplastic contamination across environments.

M. E. Miller, F. J. Kroon, C. A. Motti, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Available online 6 September 2017, In Press

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Widespread detection of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in expanded polystyrene marine debris and microplastics from South Korea and the Asia-Pacific coastal region

The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys. At the same time, EPS debris were collected from 12 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and HBCD concentrations were measured. HBCD was detected extensively in EPS buoy debris and EPS microplastics stranded along the Korean coasts, which might be related to the detection of a quantity of HBCD in non-flame-retardant EPS bead (raw material). The wide detection of the flame retardant in sea-floating buoys, and the recycling of high-HBCD-containing EPS waste inside large buoys highlight the need for proper guidelines for the production and use of EPS raw materials, and the recycling of EPS waste. HBCD was also abundantly detected in EPS debris collected from the Asia-Pacific coastal region, indicating that HBCD contamination via EPS debris is a common environmental issue worldwide. Suspected tsunami debris from Alaskan beaches indicated that EPS debris has the potential for long-range transport in the ocean, accompanying the movement of hazardous chemicals. The results of this study indicate that EPS debris can be a source of HBCD in marine environments and marine food web.

Mi Jang, Won Joon Shim, Gi Myung Han and al., Environmental Pollution, Volume 231, Part 1, December 2017, Pages 785-794

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Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Bohai Sea, China

The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics in aquatic environments is of particular concern because these pollutants represent an increasing threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. An identification of the patterns of microplastic distribution will help to understand the scale of their potential effect on the environment and on organisms. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the Bohai Sea are reported for the first time. We sampled floating microplastics at 11 stations in the Bohai Sea using a 330 μm trawling net in August 2016. The abundance, composition, size, shape and color of collected debris samples were analyzed after pretreatment. The average microplastic concentration was 0.33 ± 0.34 particles/m3. Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the main types of microplastics were polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. As the size of the plastics decreased, the percentage of polypropylene increased, whereas the percentages of polyethylene and polystyrene decreased. Plastic fragments, lines, and films accounted for most of the collected samples. Accumulation at some stations could be associated with transport and retention mechanisms that are linked to wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well as different sources of the plastics.

Weiwei Zhang, Shoufeng Zhang, Juying Wang, Yan Wang, Jingli Mu, Ping Wang, Xinzhen Lin, Deyi Ma, Environmental Pollution, Volume 231, Part 1, December 2017, Pages 541–548

Impact of Polymer Colonization on the Fate of Organic Contaminants in Sediment

Plastic pellets and microbes are important constitutes in sediment, but the significance of microbes colonizing on plastic pellets to the environmental fate and transport of organic contaminants has not been adequately recognized and assessed. To address this issue, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and polypropylene (PP) slices were preloaded with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and incubated in abiotic and biotic sediment microcosms. Images from scanning electron microscope, Lysogeny Broth agar plates and confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that all polymer slices incubated in biotic sediments were colonized by microorganisms, particularly the LDPE slices. The occurrence of biofilms induced higher dissipation rates of DDTs and PAHs from the LDPE slice surfaces incubated in the biotic sediments than in the abiotic sediments. Plastic colonization on LDPE slice surfaces enhanced the biotransformation of DDT and some PAHs in both marine and river sediments, but had little impact on PCBs. By comparison, PP and POM with unique properties were shown to exert different impacts on the physical and microbial activities as compared to LDPE. These results clearly demonstrated that the significance of polymer surface affiliated microbes to the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants should be recognized.

Chen-Chou Wu, Lian-Jun Bao, Liang-Ying Liu, Lei Shi, Shu Tao, and Eddy Y. Zeng, Environ. Sci. Technol., Just Accepted Manuscript, August 21, 2017

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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure

Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10−7 to 1.2 × 10−5 (year−1) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10−7 to 7.2 × 10−6 (year−1) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10–3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and the high degree of human exposure and suggest the need for continuous investigations on environmental pollution and toxic impacts of e-waste-related hazardous chemicals.

Hoang Quoc Anh, Vu Duc Nam, Tran Manh Tri, Nguyen Manh Ha, Nguyen Thuy Ngoc, Pham Thi Ngoc Mai, Duong Hong Anh, Nguyen Hung Minh, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Tu Binh Minh, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, August 2017, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 935–954

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Releasing of hexabromocyclododecanes from expanded polystyrenes in seawater -field and laboratory experiments

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a major component of marine debris globally. Recently, hazardous hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) were detected in EPS buoys used for aquaculture farming. Subsequently, enrichment of HBCDDs was found in nearby marine sediments and mussels growing on EPS buoys. It was suspected that EPS buoys and their debris might be sources of HBCDDs. To confirm this, the release of HBCDDs from EPS spherules detached from a buoy to seawater was investigated under field (open sea surface and closed outdoor chambers with sun exposure and in the dark) and laboratory (particle-size) conditions. In all exposure groups, initial rapid leaching of HBCDDs was followed by slow desorption over time. Abundant release of HBCDDs was observed from EPS spherules exposed to the open sea surface (natural) and on exposure to sunlight irradiation or in the dark in controlled saline water. Water leaching and UV-light/temperature along with possibly biodegradation were responsible for about 37% and 12% of HBCDDs flux, respectively. Crumbled EPS particles (≤ 1 mm) in samples deployed on the sea surface for 6 months showed a high degree of weathering. This implies that surface erosion and further fragmentation of EPS via environmental weathering could enhance the leaching of HBCDDs from the surface of EPS. Overall, in the marine environment, HBCDDs could be released to a great extent from EPS products and their debris due to the cumulative effects of the movement of large volumes of water (dilution), biodegradation, UV-light/temperature, wave action (shaking), salinity and further fragmentation of EPS spherules.

Manviri Rani, Won Joon Shim, Mi Jang and al., Chemosphere, Vol. 185, Oct. 2017

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