Microplastics have become a global environmental concern because of their widespread presence in coastal areas, the open ocean, polar regions, and various marine organisms. A key concern is whether plastic marine debris and its small fragments are a source or carrier of hazardous chemicals to marine environments and organisms. However, research on chemicals associated with microplastics has been limited. To fill this knowledge gap, recently, many attempts have been made to identify and quantify chemicals in plastic marine debris and microplastics. However, analytical strategies and methodologies have not been discussed in detail. In this article, we reviewed the analytical approaches and methods applied to the chemical analysis of microplastics and plastic debris by reviewing the available literature on plastic samples collected from the field or deployed in the field containing environmentally relevant chemical concentrations. Based on this review, we discussed the limitation of current information and future perspectives for microplastic-associated chemical analyses.