Future challenges for marine pollution monitoring and assessment

The European Union (EU), under its Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008), integrates the concepts of environmental protection and sustainable use, and requires that Member States attain Good Environmental Status (GES). GES is defined in Annex I of the MSFD (2008) by 11 qualitative descriptors, paraphrased as: maintaining biological diversity; invasive/introduced species do not adversely alter ecosystems; commercially exploited fish and shellfish stocks remain healthy; marine food webs are maintained; human-induced eutrophication is minimized including harmful algal blooms; sea-floor integrity does not adversely affect benthic or other ecosystems; permanent alteration of hydrology does not adversely affect marine ecosystems; contaminants are not pollutants; fish and other seafood are safe to eat; marine litter is not harming the coastal and marine environments; and, energy including underwater noise does not adversely affect the marine environment. (…)

Peter M. Chapman, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 95, Issue 1, pages 1–2, 15 June 2015
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